A good flanking move must be made into an uncontested area. Guerrilla marketing can be indoor, outdoor, an "event ambush or experiential, meant to get the public to interact with a brand. Guerrilla marketing stands for focusing on conventional goals such as profit or growth, but doing it by using exceptional promotional approaches, like advertising in yellow pages, wild postings or non-traditional outdoor advertising media vehicles. Figure 3: Guerrilla Marketing by Saatchi Saatchi. 2.2 The Term Guerrilla According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica (2005) the term guerrilla, also spelled guerilla, etymologically comes from the Spanish word guerra, which means war. A website for which an individual or a group generates text or data; - Offering gratuitous consultations or presentations about the product or service; - Placing stickers in target area or spray degradable graffiti on the pavement; - Generating. To assure a quick response on market chances, the percentage of personnel must kept marginally. Guerrilla marketing takes influences on all issues of the marketing mix, but is mostly stressed on the marketing communication.
This was an unusual promoting activity which can be seen as one of the first guerrilla marketing pushes into the markets, by creating buzz around the movie (m). To reciprocate the competitors attacks till the market position is assured, is the main objective in developing a defensive tactic. The most successful attacks are the surprising assaults because similar to the offensive attack, the competitor needs time to react. The guerrilla marketing benefits and principles, according to the above mentioned authors are mostly focused on the adoption of SMEs, although large enterprises also use approaches of guerrilla marketing to penetrate the market and create awareness through differentiated advertising. Chat rooms, blogs, discussion boards or e-mails. The low-cost communication effort is one of the major issues for guerrilla marketers. Comparison between Theory and Practice. Distribution niches with flexibility and innovation in changing and eliminating tactics and approaches. Guerrilla marketers are forced to find ways to promote their business and their product or service opportunities at all times,.g. The competitor is seen as the enemy and the market share refers to the battleground.
The applied marketing activities shall be innovative by using new technology to create a multiplier effect,.g. He pointed out that the difference between small and large firms are basically: - Small businesses have greater external uncertainties concerning the environment and greater internal consistencies of its motivations and actions ; - Small firm have a bigger role. In the following, literature review introduces guerrilla marketing as a metaphor of warfare. These main principles are directions in which organisations can operate by executing their aggressive or defensive types of marketing tools. Ries and Trout (1986 as well as Levinson (1984) mentioned that guerrilla marketing activities mostly affect small and medium-scaled organisations because they are more likely to serve market niches than the big players in the market.
Figure 2: Guerrilla Marketing by Giovanni FCB Agency illustration not visible in this excerpt The Brazilian advertising agency Giovanni FCB used guerrilla marketing to promote Disneys new movie Agua Negra (Dark Water) in 2005. The guerrilla warfare is characterised by irregular forces, fighting small-scale wars with limited actions; using unorthodox military strategies to fight against conventional military forces. 2.3.4 Word-of-mouth Communication In a study by Pickton and Broderick (2001) the literally meaning of word-of-mouth communications are the conversations held between the receivers, whether or not all members received the original marketing communication (p.738). Guerrilla Marketing Types, there are several kinds of guerrilla marketing. To eliminate unprofitable fields of activity can therefore be a benefit for small companies because they are able to channel their resources on more potential market segments, in which larger competitors need more time to enter. SMEs should never assume the leadership, no matter how successful they become ; a lean organisational structure of the guerrilla marketing implementing organisation is essential. In the 1980s business strategists like Ries and Trout (1986 as well as Philip Kotler (1980) adopted strategic military theories from books of Sun Tzu, The Art of War (translated 1910 or Carl von Clausewitzs (1832) book. Implications of Findings and Analysis. The strategy is created to obtain objectives like market share or key customer from the targeted competitor.
Marketing warfare strategies are according to Ries and Trout (1986) strategies that try to draw parallels to marketing and warfare; focusing on analogies between military strategies and marketing strategies, in todays business situations. In addition, people talk and forward interesting messages much faster than via traditional media vehicles. The signs created a bomb scare and cost Turner Broadcasting (the network's parent) 2 million in fines. In addition, this could involve new product introduction, repositioning of existing goods or subtle promotional activities in market niches. Especially small enterprises, which do not have a vast marketing budget can benefit from this marketing strategy because the promoting activities are designed for a low-budget,.g. Guerrilla marketers should penetrate a segment with unconventional marketing activities, such as short-term raids, product comparison or spreading the word-of-mouth.
The next paragraph is concerned with the term SME (small and medium-sized enterprise followed by an analysis of the relevance to apply guerrilla marketing strategies. An investigation of Ries and Trout (1986) concluded four main principles of marketing warfare strategies: - The defensive marketing warfare strategy is focused on businesses which have already achieved a market leader position. Guerrilla marketing tactics concentrate on a particular market segment, which makes it more appropriate to design specific operations to reach the target market or target audience. Figure 2: Guerrilla Marketing by Giovanni FCB Agency. Table of Contents, abstract, table of Contents, table of figures. The offensive marketing warfare strategy is used when businesses are focusing on the leader in the market. Furthermore, high-traffic spots like clubs, pubs or sport events can be used optimally to target a young audience. Levinson points out three different approaches, firstly, that customers are increasingly attracted by small enterprises and furthermore that these businesses can use guerrilla marketing more effectively because of its size, organisational structure and niche market presence; guerrilla marketing is flexible. This unconventional form of promotion was applied to places of high traffic,.g. Businesses strategically consider their role in the growing market of competition and therefore are trying to create tactics to achieve substantial advantages, to battle their rivals successfully.
Literature Review.1 Marketing Warfare Strategy.2 The Term Guerrilla.3 Guerrilla Marketing.3.1 Guerrilla Marketing Benefits.3.2 Guerrilla Marketing Principles.3.3 Non-traditional Guerrilla Advertising Methods.3.4 Word-of-mouth Communication.4 SME (Small and Medium-sized Enterprise).5 Guerrilla Marketing Relevance to SMEs. Guerrilla campaigns should be unconventional and generate buzz, but it has to consider legality and should not avoid public or ethical offences. Defending the market position by scanning constantly the potential attackers and their alliances (market research) to highlight their weaknesses, is an essential principle. An important axiom is to act freely in the market, which emphasises organisational flexibility and advantages in cooperation with businesses. Guerrilla marketing is a marketing tactic in which a company uses surprise and/or unconventional interactions in order to promote a product or service. The authors focused mainly on the following approaches: - Guerrilla marketing should be a 360 marketing in terms of time, creativity and energy. The first section of this dissertation is concerned with the literal meaning and theory of guerrilla marketing, and its suitability for small and medium-scaled organisations. The relevance for an SME to interact strategically online, by using guerrilla strategies combined with a selection of guerrilla campaign examples, concludes the literature review for this dissertation.
Guerrilla marketing is different than traditional marketing in that it often relies on personal interaction, has a smaller budget, and focuses on smaller groups of promoters that are responsible for getting the word out in a particular location rather than through widespread media campaigns. Secondly, small enterprises shall concentrate on linking business relationships and cooperate with other valuable businesses, to increase recommendation and recognition. Connection to the emotions of a consumer is key to guerrilla marketing. The best way to improve or hold a position is by constantly attacking the market to protect the organisations market share, product positioning or profitability. The guerrilla warfare is the weapon of the weak to fight against and to sneak from a superior enemy. 2.3.2 Guerrilla Marketing Principles In a study by Levinson (1984, 1995 Levine (2002 Ries and Trout (1986) main guerrilla marketing principles were investigated as tactics, which deliver results caused by creativity and unconventionality. These methods are often low- or no-cost and involve the widespread use of more personal interactions or through viral social media messaging. What Is Guerrilla Marketing?
In a 2005 Guinness World Record attempt, Snapple promoted its new frozen treats by erecting a 25-foot popsicle in a New York City park. The conclusion of this dissertation combined with a comparison between theory and practice highlight the last section of this research study. It was coined by Jay Conrad Levinson in his 1984 book. 2.3.1 Guerrilla Marketing Benefits Guerrilla marketing, according to Levinson (1984) achieves benefits because of the small-scale nature regarding SMEs and furthermore, guerrilla marketing tools can be relatively quick and flexible implemented to react and respond to market changes. An insider or an insider group, which acts like customers, can be used to accelerate the effect of interest or buzz, by using a guerrilla tactic,.g. Guerrilla marketing matters more than before to small organisations but it is as well, more and more adopted in larger companies to create buzz. Segmentations can be conducted via product differentiation concerning target audiences or branch. The above mentioned authors shared the notion that guerrilla marketing can affect mostly the small and medium-scaled organisations marketing processes, because of their necessity to establish activities into the market, to develop product awareness and recognition. Literature Review This part is concerned with the literally meaning of marketing strategies, seen as a warfare weapon, to fight the marketing war against competitors. Customers are confronted with an increasing amount of advertising messages per day and therefore organisations have to develop advertising approaches to stand out in todays media fragmentation.